In the “Cells” cluster both fundamental studies on individual cells as well as sorting and detection of (circulating) nanoparticles in blood will be investigated. This work has relevance for antibiotic resistance, development of new drugs for immune diseases and (early) detection of cancer and ischemia. In the “Nanos sensing and sample preparation” cluster focus will be put on new ultrasensitive optical detection techniques for early diagnosis of diseases such as Parkinson and Alzheimer. Furthermore, sample preparation and target extraction techniques will be investigated which are essential to transfer relevant targets from the milliliter samples into less than nl analysis volumes. In the “Nanofluidics” cluster the manipulation and valving of ultrasmall sample volumes and micro- and nanoparticles using ultrasonic, electrical and magnetic techniques is investigated. In addition, new nanofluidics separation techniques will be developed for fast analysis of proteins and DNA. In all three clusters, both top-quality researchers (Spinoza, Stevin, Vici laureates), large companies (Philips) and SME’s (Lionix, Micronit, Pamgene, etc.) are involved. For clinical expertise there is collaboration with NKI, LACDR, and MST. The outcome of the programme will be a mix of outstanding research, new nanotechnology-based methods for fast and early diagnosis of diseases such as cancer, ischemia, Parkinson etc., and valorization of such techniques by participating companies or newly formed spin-off’s.